Saturday 13 October 2018

AWS Cognito integration with lambda functions using the Serverless Framework


I have been writing an AWS lambda service based on the Serverless Framework. The question is, how do I secure the lambda using AWS Cognito?

Note that this post deals with Serverless Framework configuration and not how you setup Cogito user pools and clients etc. It is also assumed that you understand the basics of the Serverless Framework.


Basic authorizer configuration

Securing a lambda function with Cognito can be very simple. All you need to do is add some additional configuration – an authorizer - to your function in the serverless.yml file. Here’s an example:

    handler: My.Assembly::My.Namespace.MyClass::MyMethod
      - http: 
          path: mypath/{id}
          method: get
            origin: '*'
                - Authorization
              name: name-of-authorizer 
              arn: arn:aws:cognito-idp:eu-west-1:000000000000:userpool/eu-west-1_000000000

Give the authorizer a name (this will be the name of the authorizer that’s created in the API gateway). Also provide the ARN of the user pool containing the user accounts to be used for authentication. You can get the ARN from the AWS Cognito console.


After you have deployed your service using the Serverless Framework (sls deploy) an authorizer with the name you have given it will be created. You can find it in the AWS console.

SNAGHTML2dc34b3There is a limitation with this approach however. If you add an authorizer to each of you lambda functions like this you the number of authorizers will quickly proliferate. AWS limits the number of authorizers per API to 10 so for complex APIs you may run out of authorizers.

An alternative is to use a shared authorizer.

Configuring a shared authorizer

It is possible to configure a single authorizer with the Serverless Framework and share it across all the functions in your API. Here’s an example:

    handler: My.Assembly::My.Namespace.MyClass::MyMethod
      - http: 
          path: mypath/{id}
          method: get
            origin: '*'
                - Authorization
            type: COGNITO_USER_POOLS
              Ref: ApiGatewayAuthorizer

      Type: AWS::ApiGateway::Authorizer
        AuthorizerResultTtlInSeconds: 300
        IdentitySource: method.request.header.Authorization
        Name: name-of-authorizer
          Ref: "ApiGatewayRestApi"
          - arn: arn:aws:cognito-idp:eu-west-1:000000000000:userpool/eu-west-1_000000000

As you can see we have created an authorizer as a resource and referenced it from the lambda function. So, you can now refer to the same authorizer (called ApiGatewayAuthorizer in this case) from each of your lambda functions. Only one authorizer will be created in the API Gateway.

Note that the shared authorizer specifies an IdentitySource. In this case it’s an Authorization header in the HTTP request.

Accessing an API using an Authorization header

Once you have secured you API using Cognito you will need to pass an Identity Token as part of your HTTP request. If you are calling your API from a JavaScript-based application you could use Amplify which has support for Cognito.

For testing using an HTTP client such as Postman you’ll need to get an Identity Token from Cognito. You can do this using the AWS CLI. Here’s as example:

aws cognito-idp admin-initiate-auth --user-pool-id eu-west-1_000000000 --client-id 00000000000000000000000000 --auth-flow ADMIN_NO_SRP_AUTH --auth-parameters USERNAME=user_name_here,PASSWORD=password_here --region eu-west-1

Obviously you’ll need to change the various parameters to match your environment (user pool ID, client ID, user name etc.). This will return 3 tokens: IdToken, RefreshToken, and BearerToken.

Copy the IdToken and paste it in to the Authorization header of your HTTP request.


That’s it.

Accessing claims in your function handler

As a final note this is how you can access Cognito claims in your lambda function. I use .Net Core so the following example is in C#. The way to get the claims is to go via the incoming request object:

foreach (var claim in request.RequestContext.Authorizer.Claims)
    Console.WriteLine("{0} : {1}", claim.Key, claim.Value);

See also

Saturday 4 August 2018

How to send files to a Raspberry Pi from Windows 10

This post refers to a Raspberry Pi 3b+ running Raspbian Stretch.

A quick note; I’m going to use the PuTTy Secure Copy client (PSCP) because I have the PuTTy tools installed on my Windows machine.


In this example I want to copy a file to the Raspberry Pi home directory from my Windows machine. Here’s the command format to run:

pscp -pw pi-password-here filename-here pi@pi-ip-address-here:/home/pi

Replace the following with the appropriate values:

  • pi-password-here with the Pi user password
  • filename-here with the name of the file to copy
  • pi-ip-address-here with the IP address of the Raspberry Pi

The following example includes the –r option to copy over a directory – actually a Plex plugin – rather than a single file to the Pi.


How to check that AWS Greengrass is running on a Raspberry Pi

This post refers to a Raspberry Pi 3 B+ running Raspbian Stretch.

To check that AWS Greengrass is running on the device run the following command:

ps aux | grep -E 'greengrass.*daemon'


A quick reminder of Linux commands.

The ps command displays status information about active processes. The ‘aux’ options are as follows:

a = show status information for all processes that any terminal controls
u = display user-oriented status information
x = include information about processes with no controlling terminal (e.g. daemons)

The grep command searches for patterns in files. The –E option indicates that the given PATTERN – ‘greengrass.*daemon’ in this case - is an extended regular expression (ERE).

Friday 3 August 2018

Automatically starting AWS Greengrass on a Raspberry Pi on system boot

This post covers the steps necessary to get AWS Greengrass to start at system boot on a Raspberry Pi 3+ running Raspbian Stretch. The Greengrass software was at version 1.6.0.

I don’t cover the Greengrass installation or configuration process here. It is assumed that has already been done. Refer to this tutorial for details.

What we are going to do here is use systemd to run Greengrass on system boot.

Step 1

Navigate to the systemd/system folder on the Raspberry Pi.

cd /etc/systemd/system/


Step 2

Create a file called greengrass.service in the systemd/system folder using the nano text editor.

sudo nano greengrass.service

Copy in to the file the contents described in this document.


Save the file.


Step 3

Change the permissions on the file so they are executable by root.

sudo chmod u+rwx /etc/systemd/system/greengrass.service


Step 4

Enable the service.

sudo systemctl enable greengrass


Step 5

You can now start the Greengrass service.

sudo systemctl start greengrass


You can check that Greengrass is running.

ps –ef | grep green


Reboot the system and check that Greengrass started after a reboot.


Friday 3 August 2018

Tuesday 3 July 2018

Preparing a Raspberry Pi for AWS Greengrass

This article refers to a Raspberry Pi 3 B+. What follows are just some notes taken by me as I progressed through the steps described here:

For details of the process please refer to the document above.

One issue I did encounter was when running the Greengrass dependency checker. On my Raspberry Pi I struggled to get the memory cgroup configured correctly. The solution is included below (see Step 5).

Step 1

Initial setup of the Raspberry Pi and access via SSH was simply a normal setup process. Once connected I needed to start the first steps specific to AWS Greengrass starting with adding users.

Step 2

Basically this is Module 1: Step 9 in the document linked to above.


Step 3

Module 1: item10 calls for an upgrade to the Linux kernel. I chose to ignore this step for now. It will be interesting to see if there are any issues.


The kernel version of my OS was 4.14.50 although the Greengrass instructions suggest 4.9.30.

Step 4

Module 1: item11 is locking down security. No real issues encountered.




Step 5

So now I was at Module 1: item 12 and ready to check dependencies. This was where the only significant issue was encountered. The initial steps all progressed well until I ran the AWS Greengrass dependency checker. This showed an issue with the memory cgroup dependency.




The dependency checker showed the following message regarding a missing required dependency:

1. The ‘memory’ cgroup is not enabled on the device.
Greengrass will fail to set the memory limit of user lambdas.

For details about cgroups refer to the following document (although not specific to Raspian the information should still apply):


Running “cat /proc/cgroups” initially showed that memory subsys_name was not enabled (set to 0). So, I edited the “cmdline.txt” file located in “/boot” with the nano text editor.


I added the following items to the line in that file:

cgroup_memory=1 cgroup_enable=memory

NB: Both cgroup_memory and cgroup_enable were required to make this work.

The total line from my cmdline.txt file ended up looking like this:

dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 cgroup_memory=1 cgroup_enable=memory root=PARTUUID=c20ec4c3-02 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait

I did a reboot and checked /proc/cgroups to see if the change had taken effect. It had with the enabled flag set to 1.


Time to recheck the AWS Greengrass dependencies.


No issues this time.

I did however note the following message:

Note :
1. It looks like the kernel uses ‘systemd’ as the init process. Be sure to set the ‘useSystemd’ field in the file ‘config.json’ to ‘yes’ when configuring Greengrass core.

Note to self: Don’t forget to do that!

This left me ready to install the Greengrass core software:

Sunday 1 July 2018

Mount a network drive for CrashPlan

I was having issues with getting CrashPlan to backup to network storage (a Western Digital MyBookLive). In short, the drive was not always mapped. I fixed it using advice given in this article:

The batch file looked like this:

net use Z: /DELETE
net use Z: "\\\Andy" "password here" /USER:"username here" >>E:\mount_drive_for_crashplan.log

And I created a scheduled task to run it as instructed in the article.

Friday 29 June 2018

Installing Plex media server on a Raspberry Pi

This post was covers installing Plex media server on a Raspberry Pi 3 B+ running Raspbian Stretch Lite.

In this case I had already attached an external drive and set up Samba so I could easily add media files to the drive from my Windows PC. See this post for details.

Step 1

Firstly I added a new repository to apt so I could install it using apt-get. To do this I needed to get access to the repository.


First step was to download the key and add it to apt. I switched to be su for this. The commands below show what was run but not any of the resulting output.

sudo su
wget -q -O - | sudo apt-key add -

Step 2

Then I created a new sources file for Plex.

cd /etc/apt/sources.list.d
sudo nano plexmediaserver.list

I then added the following line to the file and saved it.

deb public main

Note the version of Raspbian is Stretch. Modify the command for different versions.


Then I updated apt-get so it has the latest package lists.

sudo apt-get update

Step 3

Now I could install Plex.

sudo apt-get install plexmediaserver-installer

Step 4

I wanted to move the Plex database from the SD card storage in the Raspberry Pi to the external drive.

To do that stopped Plex before I moved the Plex library folder from its original location to a new location on the external drive. I then created a symbolic link to in place of the original folder that pointed to the new location. Once that had been done I could restart Plex. Plex would still look for its library in the original location but be redirected by the symbolic link.

sudo service plexmediaserver stop
sudo mv /var/lib/plexmediaserver /media/seagateHDD/plexmediaserver/
sudo service plexmediaserver start


Step 5

Then it was just a case of accessing Plex from a browser on my PC to check it was working. It was! I then started creating new libraries in Plex. The seagateHDD showed up nicely, along with the Media folder containing my video files.

The Plex server was available at


Job done.

Attaching an external hard drive to a Raspberry Pi

This post was covers installing an external USB hard drive to a Raspberry Pi 3 B+ running Raspbian Stretch Lite.

Firstly, I had terrible trouble getting my Seagate Expansion 2 TB USB 3.0 Desktop 3.5 Inch External Hard Drive to work correctly. Endless permission issues, problems with Samba, you name it.

The key to solving these issues was to install the NTFS-3G driver rather than using the standard NTFS driver when mounting the drive. I’ll cover that as I go in the steps described below.

Step 1

I started with the Raspberry Pi shutdown and simply attached the drive to a vacant USB port on the Pi. I the powered up the drive and then the Pi.

Step 2

SSH to the Raspberry Pi as usual. I then ran the following command to see what drives were now attached.

sudo blkid


I looked for the new Seagate drive which in this case was /dev/sda2. I made a note of the information, especially the UUID which I used later.

Step 3

So, I’m skipping all the trial and error here but the next significant thing to do is install the NTFS-3G driver using apt-get.

sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g


Step 4

Time to mount the drive on the file system. I chose to mount the drive under /media rather than /mnt or any other location. So, I created a folder specifically for the drive (/media/seagateHDD) then mounted the drive to that folder.

cd /media
mkdir seagateHDD
sudo mount /dev/sda2 /media/seagateHDD/ -t ntfs-3g

 NB: Note the use of the –t ntfs-3g option.


This proved the drive could be mounted and that it worked. As you can see permissions are wide open.

Step 5

Now we need to set up the system to reconnect the drive at start-up. For this I modified the fstab file.

sudo nano /etc/fstab


And added the following line. Note the use of the UUID rather than /dev/sda2. This helps to ensure the same drive gets reattached just in case the device changes.

UUID=FC82A10F82A0D006 /media/seagateHDD ntfs-3g defaults 0 0


Step 6

Time to install Samba. Firstly I installed Samba using apt-get.

sudo apt-get install samba samba-common-bin


When that was done I edited the samba configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf

And added the following section.

     writeable = yes
     public = yes
     directory mode = 0777
     path = /media/seagateHDD/Media
     comment = Pi shared media folder
     create mode = 0777

Note that there was an existing folder called Media on the drive. I chose to make that folder accessible via Samba.


The a quick restart of Samba to read the new configuration.

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Step 7

Test from Windows. I just added a Media Location mapped to my Raspberry Pi’s IP address and the media share and that was it!

Tuesday 26 June 2018

Quick headless setup of a Raspberry Pi 3

Here are the steps taken to get a Raspberry Pi 3 B+ up-and-running on my home network but doing so headless – no monitor etc. attached.

Step 1

Follow the basic installation guide from to flash a micro SD card. I used the Rasbian Stretch Lite image and Etcher to flash the image onto the SD card.


Step 2

Create a file called ssh (no file extension) in the root of the newly created boot SD card.  This enables SSH when the Raspberry Pi starts up.

The file doesn’t need any contents. Just the presence of the file enables SSH connections to the Pi.

Step 3

Put the SD card in the Raspberry Pi, connect it to the network via ethernet and power it up.

Step 4

Access to your router management console and find the Raspberry Pi as a connected device. Note down the IP address.

If you can, use DHCP management tools to reserve the IP address so it won’t change (this makes it easier to reconnect to the Pi if you have to bounce your router).

Step 5

Use Putty or similar tool to SSH on to the Pi using the IP address from Step 4. Login as the ‘pi’ user (default password is ‘raspberry’ with no quotes).


Step 6

Run the following command:

sudo raspi-config

This fires up the Rasperry Pi configuration tool. Make any changes you want to (e.g. enabling wi-fi or changing the host name). Change the default password if nothing else.


Step 7

Run the following command:

sudo apt-get update

And then this one:

sudo apt-get upgrade

You’re done. Raspberry Pi is up-and-running.

Thursday 1 March 2018

Suspicious Windows 10 Printer Update?

I’ve been seeing this in my Windows 10 update after receiving a notification that it failed to install:

Canon - Printer - 4/21/2000 12:00:00 AM - 10.0.17046.1000
Status: Awaiting install


It seems I’m not alone in spotting this rather odd and somewhat suspicious issue:


For now I am trying the “Show or hide updates” troubleshooter package from Microsoft which you can find here: